The Art of Photography

Michael Freeman: The Photographer’s Eye

I found this book very helpful to gain understanding of the basics, even though I already used most of it probably unconsciously, and I also read about them online like the golden ratio and rule of thirds, it helped me clarify and organise my existing knowledge which made me feel more confident. I understood and kept reminding me the importance of eye travelling in a certain pattern across the image when it’s well composed.  I found “diagonal tension” exciting, creating tension and sense of movement in a still image; how to frame the subject – even framing within the frame – or reworking the photograph by stitching, extending or cropping; or when to fill the frame and where to place the subject. I have read many different articles online about the the golden section proportions, the Fibonacci divisions before taking this course, how it appears to be everywhere, from plant to animal and human proportions, but it was still fascinating when I read about it in this book.

Learning to create interesting images with contrasts, different obvious shapes and implied ones were challenging but also very interesting, how our eyes translates the image for us it’s just fascinating. When I looked at a photograph I could obviously tell if I liked it or not but not necessarily know why, as I learned our eyes seek for balance and symmetry, these compositions are pleasing. I found it hard to achieve a good silhouette composition such as the “Burmese Monk” , it has to have a message to convey of course, otherwise it just looks like a badly exposed image. What I did like is rhythm and patterns, filling the frame with similar patterns or organising them in a certain order is very entertaining. Finding the right angle for my portraits is one of my weaknesses, I could be over thinking but I never truly satisfied with the results, but I found useful information for landscapes and street photography.

I think this book is a great beginner’s guide in a digestible form or a visual reminder for self taught photographers like myself before taking this course, I definitely got lot more confidence, and perhaps better eye for composition too.



Charlotte Cotton: The Photograph as Contemporary Art

I really enjoyed this book, it was refreshing to read something unexpected and provoking. I was looking forward to read each chapter as they have been divided into groups of photographers who share similar ideas and motivation, it is fascinating to read about how other people think and create.

The first chapter is about the stereotypical photographers trying to capture daily moments challenging the question “If This Is Art” or just every day documentary photography. I loved Philip-Lorca diCorcia’s idea setting up a flash on a scaffold in New York letting people to trigger as they walk by creating portraits unconsciously, or creating food art like Sophie CalIe,  or be daring like Gillian Wearing and ask strangers to write something about themselves on a piece of paper, I would like to come up with ideas like these.

The second chapter is about storytelling within the contemporary art category, looks like something just happened organically but in reality, it has been carefully staged and composed. This is what I have been trying to do with self portraiture, but creating something captivating from an everyday looking event is quite challenging,  this chapter was perfect for inspiration though.

The third chapter is about deadpan photography, as the name suggests, there is no expression or mood, the subject is simply exists on the photograph. This isn’t something I was particularly interested in, it feels sad and depressed to me even though it doesn’t meant to have any feel to it.

The forth chapter is about simply things, everyday objects made interested and quirky, I really enjoyed looking at these images and working out how it was done, also a realisation to appreciate everything around us as we often take things granted.


I haven’t finished this one just yet as I have been struggling to get free time while working almost every day, I found it extremely motivating so far, a real eye opener to different perspectives, almost like looking into these artist’s mind.


For this last assignment I was advised by my tutor to create a story about a model shoot as it aligns my interest and it’s the quickest options since I’ve been working a lot. One of the reasons I’ve been busy so lately it’s because I got an apprenticeship in a photo studio, but I also have my other job resulting me working every single day. Being on a tight schedule didn’t leave me other choice but to record a day in the studio when apprentice Gary and I have a practice shoot. Luckily the boss said yes, Stephanie was pretty good at posing unconsciously.

Final Images



Stephanie is thinking about the concept of the practice shoot, what she will expect from us.


Sarah is getting ready.


Gary is chilled as usual, waiting for the model to be ready.


Steph is setting up for us, she’s determining the correct exposure by using a light meter.


Steph starts shooting, she explains what to look for when you’re directing a model.


Steph is talking about looking through the viewfinder helps to pose the model, you have to see through the lens how it will look.


It’s my turn, shot this using one small softbox. I just love how the light wraps around her, obsessed with the cheekbones!


The model changed outfit and Steph is showing a different light setup now using two strip softboxes.


Steph is demonstrating the different looks she can create with these two lights.


Watching Gary taking his turn on practicing, Steph also decided to take some “behind the scenes” shots.


Steph is showing how she got to this pose starting with a very simple one.


My turn again, this is one of the last images I finished the shoot with, although it’s a simple pose, it took me a while to get to this.



I wanted to include more details about the getting ready part for the shoot but as I also needed to work, I had to concentrate on what I wanted to shoot with the model as well, not just my assignment, so I couldn’t quite do it the way I planned. I’m not sure how I did with this assignment but I will make sure I put things right before the final assessment.


Feedback and Reflection

Please find my tutor’s report here.

I am still struggling to find time as I have been working long days with only one day off per week, I have been ill too as a result of working too much, I’m changing job soon so hopefully I only have one instead of three and will have free time too. My tutor said given the tight deadline I have done very well, the B&W images or rather dark grey and light grey tones add interest and it is appropriate for a photographic studio where there is a lot of black and white. Learning from my mistakes from the previous assignments, I wanted to make sure I create a story line and a certain feel to these series of images, but they are also working on their own. My tutor liked the first three images being particularly successful in conveying something of the character of the people. Probably the first time I actually felt happy about the series of images I produced, I feel I’m making progress and I am more exciting than ever!


I’m pleased to say that I am a photographer apprentice now which is perfect and I’m over the moon, however the pay isn’t brilliant just yet so I continue to work in catering resulting working nearly every day again…  I love working in the studio and they did say they want me full time which will happen soon, they will also provide support for my studies which is even better, finally I will have only one job and will be able to spend more time on studies as well. It is all going in the right direction now.


I’m very frustrated that I couldn’t finish all my exercises for this course, there are also many books left to read, however I feel I understood what have been asked for each assignments and completed as best as I could in the given circumstances. I genuinely wanted to do the best job I can possibly do despite of language barriers and lack of free time. I think I progressed so much since I started this course in terms of composing an image as well as writing in English, I am determined to finish Digital Photographic Practice and People and Place module side by side this year completing every single task and assignment.

I got confused how the assessment dates work as I have received three possible dates in an email not realising I have to make the first or the second, I tried to apply for extension for the third assessment due to work commitments and ongoing mental health problems but it was rejected just 5 days before the final assessment deadline. I don’t want to seem like I making excuses, I have been struggling for a long time now on my own, hopefully all this will be taken into consideration as well. Thank you.


For this assignment my tutor suggested couple things, firstly that my subject should be three dimensional, should have an area of colour, need to have an area of texture which isn’t shiny like chrome surfaces. Although he suggested that I don’t need to be creative for this, I decided to go with portraits of an actual person in different light situations rather than a boring still life composition.

Planning and research

Yes, I wrote it down properly this time and actually followed the plan, which was to create 8 photographs depicting shape, form, texture and colour.


I planned to photograph my subject against a dark background while she’s illuminated from the back, just like Philip-Lorca diCorcia [1] did with one of the images of the Heads series when he placed a flash above people and as they were walking pass on the street, he pressed the shutter. For daylight situation I was thinking I could create the inverse version of this, very light background with underexposed subject creating a black silhouette.


Another way of showing the shape of the subject is using light and shadows to create three dimensional effect. I had two locations in mind; one is a coffee shop or restaurant with large windows, shooting the subject from outside including some foreground element, the subject is in focus lit by soft light coming from above, and show some detail in the background, creating a layered composition, similar to William Eggleston’s [2] Untitled image from 1970 of a kid bicycle; and an open field an hour before sunset using the golden hour light as a backdrop for a backlit portrait, filling some shadows with a reflector.


The quality of the surface detail, such as skin. To be able to show most of the skin detail, I was planning to shoot in harsh light conditions beware of overexposing the image. As diCorcia’s [3] other image from the Heads series, the idea is to shoot in daylight (or in his case it was a flash from above) against a dark background and the sun is only hitting one side of the face from above resulting harsh shadow on the other side of the face or the light is directly above the head creating very unflattering shadows under the eyes and nose. A different way to show texture is to shoot the subject under harsh light but there is something else between the light source and the subject causing interesting shadows, patterns and textures, I was inspired by this photograph  Light and shadow by Arseniy Semyonov.


To show true colour quality, the subject should be evenly lit, my idea is to shoot in the golden hour again but this time the subject is facing into the light, since it is coming from the side, there are no shadows just even golden light on the face. A good example I found is Thomas Ruff’s passport like Portrait [4] even though it wasn’t taken outside, he created a nice, almost completely even and warm light. Another idea is to shoot on an overcast day when the sky is a giant soft box, distributing light evenly, also using cloudy white balance setting is ideal as the skin would look blueish otherwise. Joel Sternfeld [5] and Jitka Hanzlova [6] photographs of strangers were probably taken on a cloudy day too as there are only tiny shadows around the subjects’ faces.

In terms of unusual and attractive lighting, I was thinking to add a flash or a battery operated LED light to add interest to the images, hopefully I will have the time to play with them.

Final images



I managed to create only the inverse version of what I originally planned, however it didn’t quite turned out the way I wanted, It was a very cloudy day so there wasn’t any harsh light coming in so I processed into a black and white image to strengthen contrast.


I was close to put this image into the previous section but I think the model isn’t isolated enough from the dark background, but she is lit from the side, the composition has the foreground element, the background out of focus, there is also a reflection of a man where the model is gazing adding more depth and interest to the photograph.


Golden hour portrait as planned, the sun is illuminating the model’s hair, I used a gold reflector on the right side to fill some shadows and creating highlights, giving dimensions to the face.


Similar set up but this time the sun is on the left side highlighting the hair, shadows on the right slightly filled with a gold reflector.




It was a cloudy day so there was no chance for harsh sunlight, but bringing the model closer to the window and shooting from above is a recipe for highlighting skin imperfections.



This time the model is facing to the sun, I didn’t use reflector so I’m not sure why the face and the neck is warmer the shoulder and hand, could be make up or tan, I didn’t notice it at the time of the shoot, could it be the fact that this kind of flat light is showing the true colour of the skin? I hope that’s the case.


The last image was taken in a shaded area, I exposed for the model’s face using shade white balance setting. It was fairly good straight out of camera, I only made small adjustments to achieve the closest match to her skin colour.


Sadly we didn’t have time to play with different lights, I really wanted to try to shoot through some lace materials to create patterns on the face or create something similar to Arseniy Semyonov’s photograph, but there was no direct sun, we were lucky to get about 15 minutes of it before sunset. All in all I enjoyed preparing for this assignment the best so far, it really does make a difference when there is a clearly written plan to follow. I feel I gained better understanding of the light behavior, I particularly enjoyed shooting through a large window creating interesting reflections and incorporating these into my compositions.

[1] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 20.

[2] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 11.

[3] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 46.

[4] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 106.

[5] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 108.

[6] Charlotte Cotton – The photograph as contemporary art, page 109.


Feedback and Reflection

Please find my tutor’s report here.

I didn’t choose the best subject for this assignment but I wanted to continue working with people as this is the area i’m aiming for, my tutor appreciated the fact that I didn’t have much gear to work with either, I could have taken an easier route but I wanted to follow my interest and progress in portrait photography. The research is improving every time, I still need to add a Research and Reflection page which I will do once I wrote articles to publish about the books I have read so far. I love to read and I’m really enjoying the books, sadly I had to start them many times as over time I have forgotten even though I took notes, just too much time passed as still struggling because of my work commitments.


I recently bought my first full frame camera, I was instantly blown away by the sharpness and incredible amount of detail. I have been looking at various photographers’ work, I love the way the Russian photographer, Anastasia Volkova [1] and the London based photographer, Marc Hayden [2] colour their images, not just getting it right in camera, but the retouching skills, how distinctive their style is, they are just admirable. Anastasia is the main reason I became very interested in photography the first place, I have been following her beautiful work at least 5 years now, she’s also the inspiration behind my camera choice. But having a great camera does not equal breathtaking images, now I gained better understanding behind the meaning of colour, I can truly appreciate their hard work put into each photograph. I hope I can achieve the same one day, develop my own unique style.

Following my passion, I decided to take some portraits of a friend for this assignment but I also included few images I took as I was walking in town for a greater variation of subjects. I asked her to bring colourful clothes so we can create different colour harmonies as required for this task, since my retouching skills are nowhere near as the artists mentioned above (I only started experimenting in Photoshop), I made all the adjustments in Lightroom, following the ratios suggested by Goethe [3], indicating the brightness of each colour with a number: yellow 9, orange 8, red and green 6, blue 4, violet 3.

Colour harmony through complementary colours

1. red-green-1-1-7805

Red: Green 1:1 – Equally bright

Orange: Blue 1:2 – Orange two times bright as Blue


Yellow: Violet 1:3 – Yellow three times bright as Violet

1. red-green-1-1-7794

Red: Green 1:1 – Equally bright
























Complementary colours are the hues found opposite of each other on the colour wheel. For this set of images I tried to make sure that the amount of colours are the closest to the ideal proportions as well as they are equally intense. Although it seems to be a lazy choice, it wasn’t that easy, I also wanted to achieve pleasing images overall in terms of composition to avoid taking pictures for the sake of colour harmonies. I’m aware that I included other colours too such as the skin and hair tones, the green leaves in the background in some cases, I brought down the saturation and brightness a little to direct the attention to the colour pairs.


Colour harmony through similar colours

2.harmony orange-red-7842

Orange: Red

2.harmony yellow-green-7784

Yellow: Green

2.colour harmony-blue-green

Blue: Green


Green: Blue























Similar colours are the ones close to each other on the colour wheel in terms of cool and warm range. I swapped the last photo in this set to a multiple exposure image of a british tennis player, Liam Broady after looking at the blue-green comparison, I realised I already shot the “opposite” and this is way more interesting than another green scene including the sky. I really like orange and red together, again I pulled the greens back a little the make these colours pop. The next image perhaps not that obvious yellow, I tried to compare the skin next to the green leaves which I think worked well.


Colour contrast through contrasting colours

3. green-orange-7874

Green: Orange

3. yellow-red-7905

Yellow: Red

3. green-violet-7829

Green: Violet

3. blue-red-7931

Blue: Red























Contrasting colours are spaced in between, they aren’t close to each other, nor on the opposite sides on the colour wheel. My favorite is green an orange together, I love the way the sun peeking through the leaves painting them gold, the yellow top works well with the green leaves, it doesn’t feel disharmonious at all. I like the splash of yellow with a greater amount of red together; although green is twice as bright as violet, adding a bit of brightness and saturation to the violet here balances the proportions. In spite of the fact that red (6) is brighter than blue (4), by increasing the brightness and saturation of the blue and decreasing a little of the red, the ideal balance between the two colours seem to be restored.


Colour accent

4. colour pop 1.-7957

Red as accent

4. pop of colour 4

Blue as spot

4. colour pop 2.-142

Red as accent

4. pop of colour 3

Red and Green as spot























The first time I came across colour accent in photography when I was looking at black-and-white images with a splash of colour, only a small detail left out of the conversion. For this set of images I needed to find similar colour relationships as mentioned above and frame them to create this effect without black-and-white conversion. For the first image I stepped pretty far away from my friend, trying to exaggerate the background, like she’s lost in the woods and only can be noticed by her red top. The second photo features a little blue, small amount of cool in contrast with warm colours, also I liked the way the leaves are creating a natural frame around the door. The third photograph features red against green again in a different way, ideally I would have captured this much more far away making the bench look tiny, but I had no space, nor wider lens. The last one is red and green in equal amounts but this time only very little part of the image, since most of my image backgrounds are solid colours, I found this to be a good example putting this colour pair against white, grey and black.

As I was researching for more in terms of retouching portraits just by changing colour, I came across this brilliant article featuring a high end retoucher, Natalia Taffarel [4], how she’s editing and correcting images with different hues, and a colour harmony tool [5] to help determining the desired colours. This is beyond amazing!


The power of colour (retouch by Natalia Taffarel)

What did I learn from this part of the course? I’m very much aware of harmonising colours now, I can see them just looking through my window and able to find them instead of intentional arrangements and I’m looking forward to put this knowledge into retouching like Natalia does. Completing this assignment was a lot harder than I anticipated but it also feels incredibly rewarding, knowing this will definitely make me a better photographer.




[3] Michael Freeman – The photographer’s eye – Page 121.




Feedback and reflection

Please find my tutor’s report here.

I kind of fallen into the trap of worrying about colour ratios too much, but I began to understand the importance of creating a set of images that work well separately as well as a set, creating a scene which is already interesting and colour relationships will only strengthen the composition as oppose to letting colours to take control. I was looking for inspiration and came across David LaChapelle’s work, as he’s known for his unique, hyper-realistic aesthetic and colourful imaginary.  I was blown away, could not stop looking at the images, trying to understand what’s going on, what is the message what he’s trying to say and I realise how boring my images are and where I’ve gone wrong. “Make love not walls” has a clear message, feels like there isn’t much going on but there is with the colourful tank, the naked man facing towards it in the heart shaped light punched in the wall and the sun comes through. I was wondering of the colour choice of the tank, why these colours and why so many in a particular shape as well, I would like to know what he was thinking when he composed this image. Clearly I should have done this before the assignment, sadly I was rushed to finish it due to work commitments which I am trying to resolve as I have been working most days, only getting couple days off in a month, not having a life nor much time to spend on the course which is very frustrating.

Before this exercise I didn’t know much about black-and-white photography, I didn’t understand why some images stand out over others, I assumed the secret was contrasting colours but didn’t think about tones, how colours turn into different shades of grey. I guess I never really experimented with this.

I chose to shoot a still life photo as advised in the course notes, I used the grey card to determine the white balance, made sure it stays the same shade during the filtering process than cropped it out as it was disturbing the composition.

Original filter

No filter filter

Green filter filter

Blue filter filter

Red filter filter

Yellow filter



It’s interesting to see that the normal black and white conversion lightened the dark colour (blue) and darkened all lighter colours (red, green, yellow). Reviewing these images I learned that each filter makes its tone very light and makes other colours darker and it appears to me that the effect depends on each colour’s brightness, for example there isn’t much difference between red filter changing red and green, and yellow changing red and green, there is only slight difference, probably the same as between red and yellow colours. However on this chart the differences are more significant, but they aren’t the exact shade though. I hope I got this right, I feel I’m on the right way to understand how this works.

Since I’m shooting with my DSLR, I always take images in colour, I tried to convert some of my photos to black and white but I didn’t get pleasing results most of the time, but when I did, the message of the image was something emotional. I was thinking, how can I decide when to convert (or shoot) in black and white, Freeman [1] validates my opinion when I see the picture of the lioness, there are no distracting colours, the attention is on the animal rather than the surroundings. He also mentions texture and form, how this format enhances lines and shapes giving a different overall feel to the image, absolutely amazed by Ansel Adams’ work [2], incredible amount detail and contrast.

Looking for more practical advice, I came across an article [3] on this subject showing what filters do to different images and also found this brilliant chart which really helped me understand how this work.




I really like how the red filter enhanced the sky on a beautiful landscape, how orange filter gives smooth skin tone, how green filter separates objects from nature’s green, the way blue filter gives smooth, calming feeling by reducing contrast as it darkens most colours. On that account I will definitely experiment more with black and white photography.



[1] Michael Freeman – The photographer’s eye, Page 126.




Colour has such a huge impact on everything. Some colours are unpleasant to look at, some we just love, they just work together. Thinking about fashion, when a garment piece is designed or an entire outfit is planned; interior design, how the furniture, the accessories are in harmony with the wall colour and of course in photography the same applies, our eye is seeking for pleasant colour combinations but what’s the science behind all?

For this exercise I needed to study complementary colours, the colour harmony between two colours that found directly across from each other on the colour wheel. Colours are in harmony when they are in inverse proportion to their relative brightness, for example red and green are equally bright therefore the ideal combination is 1:1, orange is twice as bright as blue so two times more blue needed compare to the amount of orange to create a balanced combination (1:2), yellow is even brighter so the ideal proportion is 1:3 as opposed to violet.

Part 1

The right proportions

Red: Green 1:1

Orange: Blue 1:2


Yellow: Violet 1:3























Part 2

No strict rules

Red: Green Less red compare to previous part

Orange: Blue Overpowering green, orange and blue as colour accent.


Yellow: Violet Slightly less violet, same amount of yellow





























I found it really difficult to find exact colour combinations in the right proportions in nature, so I asked my friend to be my subject with some colourful clothes. Although there aren’t just pure colour pairs, I tried to keep the brightness on the same level to illustrate their harmonious relationship. I recently came across a retoucher’s article about this subject, as I’m really into portrait photography it was fascinating to see using this technique to create beautiful images. Now I understand how it works and looking forward to practice with it in the future.
Article :


Michael Freeman – The photographer’s eye

This is probably the only thing I learned about colours back in school, I remember painting the colour wheel on Drawing and Painting class, primary colours (red, yellow, blue) and secondary colours (green, violet, orange). In photography using colour film or DSLR and monitors are working with different primary colours (red, blue, green) known as RGB but printers are using CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black referred to key colour). But why is that? It took a while to wrap my head around it.

The concept of paint is that colour absorbs every colour except itself, so when colours are added together, the amount of colour is absorbed by the paint, the light is subtracted that the paint can reflect and it turns black when all colours are added togther because there is no light left to reflect, that is why RYB is also known as the subtractive colour scheme. However we see light differently, light travels in RGB referred to additive colour scheme because when lights are added together, the spectrum of the light is added what it can reflect back creating lighter colours and eventually turns to white when all lights are added.


Painters’ primary colours (from


Hue wheel (from




Primary colours


2. primary and secondary colours-red (1 of 3)

Too bright

2. primary and secondary colours-red (2 of 3)

Closest to primary red

2. primary and secondary colours-red (3 of 3)

Too dark









2. primary and secondary colours-yellow (3 of 3)

Closest to primary yellow

2. primary and secondary colours-yellow (1 of 3)

Close match

2. primary and secondary colours-yellow (2 of 3)

Some parts are close, mostly darker








2. primary and secondary colours-blue (1 of 3)

Light blue

2. primary and secondary colours-blue (2 of 3)

Close to primary blue

2. primary and secondary colours-blue (3 of 3)

Closest match








Secondary colours


2. primary and secondary colours-green (3 of 3)

Close match

2. primary and secondary colours-green (1 of 3)

Closest match – leaves in shadow

2. primary and secondary colours-green (2 of 3)

Too dark









2. primary and secondary colours-violet (3 of 3)

Too bright

2. primary and secondary colours-violet (2 of 3)

Light violet

2. primary and secondary colours-violet (1 of 3)

Closest match







2. primary and secondary colours-orange (1 of 3)

Closest match

2. primary and secondary colours-orange (2 of 3)

Close but a bit dull colour

2. primary and secondary colours-orange (3 of 3)

Too dark








First I found it hard to match the colours to the hue wheel, I deliberately chose objects that are natural to avoid creating a paint manufacturer’s catalogue as advised, except my red dress against a window since I couldn’t find anything else red around me other than cars or doors. Before this exercise I never really thought about controlling the colour because I can enhance them in post processing, however this gave me a guideline to follow when it comes to colouring an image to get realistic results.



Michael Freeman – The photographer’s eye